1. Directional cues and positional landmarks are also used to create the cognitive map. 2. Much of the cognitive map is created through self-generated movement cues. 3. There are several ways that humans form and use cognitive maps. 4. The cognitive map is thus obtained by the integration of these two separate maps. 5. Several fish species are capable of learning complex spatial relationships and forming cognitive maps. 6. An important topic in cognitive geography is the cognitive map. 7. The idea of a cognitive map was first developed by Edward C . Tolman. 8. Cognitive maps enable planning capacities and use of current perceptions, memorized events, and expected consequences. 9. "Not necessarily all positive, but it does put it on people's cognitive maps as a place. 10. Another method of creating cognitive maps is by means of auditory intake based on verbal descriptions.