11. The image was essentially a stored memory of all past context, akin to Tolman's cognitive map. 12. The results of path integration are then later used by the hippocampus to generate the cognitive map. 13. The cognitive map is generated from a number of sources, both from the visual system and elsewhere. 14. It is often argued that in both humans and animals, spatial memories are summarized as a cognitive map. 15. Clustering shows that people tend to chunk information together according to smaller layouts within a larger cognitive map. 16. As a consequence, these mental models are often referred to, variously, as cognitive maps, mental maps, frames of reference. 17. They apparently accomplished this feat by devising a new flight path based on a cognitive map of visible landmarks. 18. McNamara, Hardy and Hirtle identified region membership as a major building block of anyone's cognitive map ( 1989 ). 19. London taxi drivers are helping neuroscientists understand how people create a " cognitive map " that allows them to navigate. 20. Analogously to the way grammar arranges words to express meanings and convey a world, also this formed a cognitive map ).