11. For arbitrary values of the force constant, " k ", the Schr�dinger equation does not have an analytic solution. 12. :: : : : 100 * 9.80665 is the force the weight applies on the spring, not the force constant. 13. However, your displacement is in centimetres, so the force constant calculated would be in gm / ( cm * s?). 14. This frequency is related to the reduced mass and the force constant ( bond strength ) of the molecule according to 15. The Newtonian tradition is to put the units in the force constant, but particle physics has a tradition of unitless coupling constants. 16. This was published in the " Physical Review " as " Atomic Force Constants of Copper from Feynman's Theorem " ( 1958 ). 17. Nucleophilic addition does not occur if kCO * ( the effective force constant for the CO ligand ) is below a threshold value 18. This indicated that the force constant between the two oxygen atoms corresponds with the constant found for the O 2 " ion. 19. Covalent materials generally have high bond-bending force constants and high shear moduli and are more likely to give superhard structures than, for example, ionic solids. 20. Ford managed to make economies of scale work in his favor by building big, enforcing high quality standards and forcing constant innovation in the manufacturing process.