11. Since there are an uncountably infinite number of vector components in the basis, this is an uncountably infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. 12. The length of the vector is determined by calculating its Euclidean norm : the square root of the sum of squares of the vector components. 13. According to the right-hand rule, a current dipole gives rise to a magnetic field that points around the axis of its vector component. 14. As far as real-valued search spaces are concerned, mutation is normally performed by adding a normally distributed random value to each vector component. 15. Meteorologists typically express the three vector components of velocity ( u, v, w ) } } ( eastward, northward, and upward ). 16. Vector sensors measure the scalar and vector components of the acoustic field in a single point in space, therefore can serve as a compact multichannel receiver. 17. When the radio frequency pulse is turned off, the transverse vector component produces an oscillating magnetic field which induces a small current in the receiver coil. 18. Multi-objective query optimization models the cost of a query plan as a cost vector where each vector component represents cost according to a different cost metric. 19. However, skipping ahead slightly, this to-be-proven fact allows for a nice closed form solution of the vector component outside of the plane: 20. M _ \ infty is the freestream Mach number, and n _ x, n _ y, n _ z are the surface-normal vector components.