A haemagglutination ) is available, but not commercially in most countries.
Diagnosis of aviadenovirus is by histopathology, hemagglutinin inhibition and the virus causes haemagglutination in chickens and ducks.
Antibodies to IBV may be detected by indirect Haemagglutination inhibition ( haemagglutinating IBV produced after enzymatic treatment by phospholipase C ).
Bacterial culture, immunofluorescent antibody testing ( IFAT ), complement fixation test and haemagglutination can all be used to confirm the diagnosis.
In the same study it was found that 5-30 nm silver nanoparticles caused membrane damage, detrimental morphological variation, and haemagglutination to the red blood cells.
The simplest procedure for'in field diagnosis'is the detection of antibodies by indirect haemagglutination test ( IHA ), ELISA and PCR . These have varying degrees of efficacy.
A variety of tests for the presence of BFDV are available : standard polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ), quantitative PCR ( qPCR ) which can detect the virus in extremely small quantities, whole-genome sequencing, histology, immunohistochemical tests, and quantitative haemagglutination assays.
Forty-three close contacts of the infected patients did not become ill and they all tested negative for haemagglutination inhibition antibodies specific for avian H7N9 . It was concluded that the infection of the daughter probably resulted from close contact with her father during unprotected exposure, suggesting that the virus was able to transmit from person to person.
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