Due to a high-calorie diet, especially one high in proteins and / or low in vitamin D, vitamin E, and manganese, one or both carpus ( wrist ) joints are retarded in their development relative to the rest of the wing; for reasons unknown, if only one wing is affected, it is usually the left one.
According to the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, most of the plants which have become the targets of smugglers belong to protected species, such as Labisia Pumila or locally known as Kachip Fatimah, Ficus Deltoides ( Serapat Angin ), Freycinetia Montana ( Pandan Tikus ), Neobalano Carpus ( Chengal ), Kombasia Malaccensis ( Kempas ) and Tectona Grandis ( Jati ).
In a 2007 study, the American artist and anatomist David J . Jackowe and his colleagues demonstrated that the mysterious white cord that courses along the ulnar aspect of the cadaver's carpus and little finger, long thought to be either an ulnar nerve variant or artistic error, is most likely the tendon of an anomalous forearm muscle, the accessory abductor digiti minimi.
The paired fins of the early sarcopterygians were smaller than tetrapod limbs, but the skeletal structure was very similar in that the early sarcopterygians had a single proximal bone ( analogous to the humerus or femur ), two bones in the next segment ( forearm or lower leg ), and an irregular subdivision of the fin, roughly comparable to the structure of the carpus / phalanges of a hand.
The entire arm is referred to as the brachium and brachial, the front of the elbow as the antecubitis and antecubital, the back of the elbow as the olecranon or olecranal, the forearm as the antebrachium and antebrachial, the wrist as the carpus and carpal area, the hand as the manus and manual, the palm as the palma and palmar, the thumb as the pollex, and the fingers as the digits, phalanges, and phalangeal.
However, a detailed cladistic study of morphological characters found well marked differences between the proposed two genera and concluded that the supposed species groups around " S . biunguiculatus " / " S . coutierei ", " S . brevicarpus " and " S . neomeris " are neither clearly defined nor, as it seems, monophyletic, while the group separated in " Zuzalpheus " was clearly distinct in characters of the minor first walking legs ( pereiopods ), and usually distinct in some others; in all " Synalpheus sensu stricto " checked to date, the transverse setal comb on the back of the minor first pereopod dactyl is missing, and the carpus is plump ( about as wide as it is long or slightly wider ) and small ( not longer than half the length of the palm ).